The U. Army is converging many of its communications, electronics and intelligence disciplines to combat a cyberthreat that already has eroded much of the competitive advantage the U. Countering this threat virtually mandates that cyber operations move into the realm of fully integrated operations. When Lt. Edward C.
That comes directly back on the Militaey. This is where the private sector comes in, they have the resources and money, it is their entire purpose. Selfishness, Altruism and Rationality. Arce, J. Journal of European Public Policy5, March: 98— New York: Free Press. Boston: Little, Brown.
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Army cyber Military and private convergence had discussions with private industry on security, Gen. MPRI, Inc. Not all companies, organizations or institutions have embraced the best practice of Military and private convergence convwrgence so that they are ready to meet and mitigate risks with improved, proactive security programs. Saying he thinks the Army is on the right track, Gen. Over time, it will just be cyber. The event includes a pre-conference workshop, two days of streamed sessions of over 35 expert speakers, and poster sessions and an Millitary exhibition of the latest CBRN, EOD and hazmat technology. Categories : Military—industrial complex Private military contractors Security companies Types of military forces Types of business entity Privatization Cyberpunk themes. Procedure: If the wait time pdivate an elevator exceeds 15 minutes, please text CONvergence Operations at and indicate your floor and elevator bank. The Spectator. Schoolgirls peeing their pants consent may be suspended at any time on a case by case basis, even retroactively. Integrating cyber and intelligence is an operational function rather than an organizational one, the general says. Procedure: When boarding the escalators, please leave a gap of steps between riders. I never felt more proud in my life. The reputation and brand of the guys putting in znd security projects rely much more on their capability to design, consult and do post project advisory. Gale Academic One File.
State Crimes Against Democracy pp Cite as.
- The event includes a pre-conference workshop, two days of streamed sessions of over 35 expert speakers, and poster sessions and an accompanying exhibition of the latest CBRN, EOD and hazmat technology.
- The U.
- It helped people realize that the security and safety of all Americans is of great importance to everyone.
- Converge Strategies builds bridges between the military, government, and private sector to accelerate energy innovation.
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 2 pages. Subscribe to view the full document. I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer.
In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero. American Public University. SCMT The convergence. Uploaded By bigfatcattiny How is it being accomplished? After a tragic event it was realized that the safety of both were detrimental. The government realized that there was more security needed so they decided to increase security. Many private security contractors are contracted with government entities to help provide security.
Just look at most military bases, not all security is military personnel. There are contracted private sector civilians. Another great impact from the convergence of public and the private sector is two private security companies and the city of Vancouver, teamed up for the security that was provided for the Olympics this year.
This is where the private sector comes in, they have the resources and money, it is their entire purpose. When these two sectors work together really great things are achieved, getting them to work together is not always the easiest thing. Share this link with a friend: Copied! Other Related Materials 8 pages. Ask Expert Tutors You can ask 0 bonus questions You can ask 0 questions 0 expire soon You can ask 0 questions will expire.
Crisis Management is serious business. To meet those needs, the Army accepted a degree of risk in security and resiliency, Gen. Often, states do not have control over these operations. Advertising E-mail Us Contact Form. The problem is that the government shutdown and furloughs have wreaked havoc with consistent and predictable long-term funding, which in turn affects programs and training.
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Preparation for worst case scenarios, gathering intelligence and building secure sites remain a keen interest of every stakeholder. As a result, astute security professionals have leveraged that access to become more closely aligned with enterprise leaders and leverage that influence and access to help business leaders to achieve corporate goals. Security directors should reexamine their functional responsibilities to make sure they are in alignment with the enterprise goals and objectives.
Risk was something we could calculate and manage in our heads. When the World Trade Center came down, I think every security professional had to come to the same conclusion: the rules have changed. Not only have the rules changed, but the game and its players changed. Now, instead of just adding another threat to our list, we have added another dimension to risk assessments which changes the way we design buildings, conduct business and even hire employees.
This naturally manifests itself in challenges to security budgets and funding across businesses as well as government agencies. We as security professionals need to find cost-effective alternatives that mitigate the risks to acceptable levels, as well as allow for the business to move forward in order to capture new business opportunities. Looking forward to the next 10 years, Messemer suggests that security professionals must demonstrate the ability to:. The tasks were consolidated into fewer facilities that shared a universal standard for business continuity and disaster recovery plans.
Insurance underwriters audited the changes and lowered our insurance premiums, resulting in substantial savings over a three-year period. Risk management is now accepted by many organizations for the value that it adds through the identification, avoidance, mitigation, or sharing of the events that might occur affecting a company.
Years ago, this would have been a byproduct of a high-quality security program, but risk management has certainly become its own vocation and rightfully so.
The Transportation Security Administration continues to receive backlash over airport security. Funding remains an issue. And standards are a work in progress. Unfortunately, this is not going to change anytime soon unless the end users and first responders start demanding open standards and true interoperability.
On a positive side of things, the increased level of synergy among security professionals and other key stakeholders like IT, risk management and first responders has brought the standards issue to the front line of the challenges that need to be addressed going forward.
Education in security as a profession needs help, as well. Chris Hertig is a member of the Behavioral Sciences Department at York College of Pennsylvania, where he teaches courses in security management. He suggests that security needs a greater tie in with academia.
Some of the Homeland Security programs are research oriented. Over time this will transform the industry into being more scientific. While some professional associations such as ASIS International, the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners and the Loss Prevention Foundation have launched successful initiatives to educate students and faculty, courses in security and risk management as a future profession need to be prevalent on college campuses.
There is also still a lack of proactive security as far as cameras go. We often deploy cameras that are doing nothing in regard to detection and prevention of crime and terrorism.
There is much intelligent technology out there, including smart cameras, but much of it is not being used the way it could be, Piran says. Probably the most qualified Americans to be with TSA and other security operations are those who have spent a couple of years in Iraq.
Such veterans typically have developed an innate sense of danger, and who is dangerous, the same as a cop who walks a beat for 20 years.
Active shooters, workplace violence episodes and countless other tragic occurrences continue to happen at an alarming rate. Unfortunately, even after 10 years we have really not figured it out, adds Clifton. However, airport security, border security and the immigration process are obviously not as good as they could be.
As for the security industry, our partnership with the government has improved through better communication and a genuine willingness to help. But it seems that no real best practices have emerged — from the private or public sector — for preventing terrorism. New technology, intelligence-sharing and government participation seem to be dependent on where you live and who has the most grant money.
Not all companies, organizations or institutions have embraced the best practice of emergency preparedness so that they are ready to meet and mitigate risks with improved, proactive security programs. But we have more work to do. The system helped us to organize our major crisis response elements. The cyber and physical security of the North American power grid is center stage in the efforts to ensure critical infrastructure resilience in the United States and Canada.
Every aspect of modern life depends on electricity, from banking and finance to transportation, from education and social services to operation of our military complex, from hospitals and public safety to communications.
The North American Electric Reliability Corporation NERC leads the effort to improve physical and cyber security for the bulk power system by initiating leadership, supporting security practitioners and moving the electric sector forward by addressing threats to critical infrastructure. Security is addressed in the daily operation of the electricity grid and in future planning of the grid.
People are more aware of their surroundings and more willing to identify things that are out of place or unusual. Within the electricity industry, events over the past 10 years that resulted in geographically isolated specific power outages combined to drive vast improvements in physical security of plants and facilities. On the cybersecurity front, the electricity industry has been very proactive in developing mandatory and enforceable security standards for those entities considered vital to the reliability of the bulk power system in North America.
The electricity sector has had a mature understanding of risk management for many years as related to natural disturbances such as hurricanes, earthquakes and how hot and cold weather can affect the efficient operation of the power grid.
The greatest changes in risk management have been in the evolution and understanding of man-made threats such as targeted terrorist attacks and the ever-changing cybersecurity threat environment. Within the electricity sector, the development of Critical Infrastructure Protection CIP Standards has had a profound effect on the industry.
While industry was adopting and incorporating changes in digital technologies to increase productivity and realize economic efficiencies, there was no consistency in the efforts. The CIP Standards continue to evolve as would be expected in any new large scale initiative but in a very short period of time have already resulted in higher levels of consistency and more focused awareness across the North American electricity sector.
Yet, a decade later, as public safety becomes increasingly more important, less than half of Americans still do not have an emergency plan in place and 37 percent do not feel confident in their abilities to react properly during an emergency, according to the American Public Safety Survey conducted by Federal Signal and Safe America Foundation. So how do emergency managers effectively communicate in the event of an emergency?
It was not that long ago when the agencies responsible for issuing warnings and alerts to the general public depended almost exclusively on outdoor sirens and radio and television broadcasts.
This includes everything from landlines, cell phones, pagers, radios, text messaging, public address and intercom systems, LED signage, message boards and strobe alerts, to a variety of IP-based technologies, including e-mail, instant messaging, RSS, smart phones and even social networking technologies such as Twitter and Facebook. These advanced technologies and messaging formats are clearly playing an expanded role in the development of the newest generation of emergency warning and mass notification systems.
By the same token, it has become evident that these new technologies must be considered in context with a host of human factors such as age, physical disabilities and cultural differences, which have always been a concern in planning emergency alert and notification systems.
An effective, comprehensive emergency warning and mass notification strategy must demonstrate the flexibility to accommodate the needs of different audiences.
The U. Army is converging many of its communications, electronics and intelligence disciplines to combat a cyberthreat that already has eroded much of the competitive advantage the U.
Countering this threat virtually mandates that cyber operations move into the realm of fully integrated operations. When Lt. Edward C. Cyber issues had been approached from either a communications perspective or an intelligence perspective—not from an operational perspective, says the head of U. The general adds that Army doctrine for elements such as fire maneuver and protection fits well with cyber. The greatest problem with cyber is that many people do not realize what is going on all around them because they cannot see it, Gen.
Cardon offers. Over time, their awareness is increasing as their own lives have been affected by events such as credit card hacks. These attacks have brought cyber issues more to the forefront, he points out. Paraphrasing Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky, Gen. Commercial hacks are but one type of cyberthreat, and others apply in military terms. Cardon notes that Russia used cyber attacks in Estonia, Georgia, Crimea and Ukraine as an effective part of integrated military operations.
Then there is China, which has tapped U. Cardon asks. That comes directly back on the military. Ultimately, the cyber problem will be resolved when the Defense Department, industry and academia come together better to address its challenges, Gen. Many of the same threats the Defense Department faces already have struck industry, he points out, and that expertise can be applied to military vulnerabilities. Too many people think of cyber as a military problem, when it often is not.
Defense cyber organizations can focus only on protecting defense information networks, but commercial cybersecurity may be key to defending against a range of cyberthreats. The general observes that many commercial information technology firms each have science and technology budgets that run in the billions of dollars. The Army must work with them by keeping them informed; in turn, industry can build products and capabilities at speed.
But forming closer relationships with private industry that allow for a freer exchange of ideas need not focus on cutting-edge technologies, he notes. He suggests taking an operational approach that would not affect patentworthy capabilities. The cost-benefit ratio with cyber is strongly out of line, the general continues. Fixing that will require some dynamic action, he says. A convergence of defense, industry and academia is only one type of convergence needed for cybersecurity.
The Army is undergoing its own merger of cyber activities, such as intelligence, electronic warfare and information operations. Throw electronic warfare into the mix, and the definitions become even more blurred, as electronic protect and electronic attack combine to interface with other facets. The same holds true for traditional labels such as offensive and defensive cyber operations.
Over time, it will just be cyber. The Army has begun to bring full-spectrum cyber into its combat training center rotations, he adds.
The service used to bring in a cyber opposing force, which would hammer blue forces extensively. Now, the opposing force is working against defensive cyberspace operations, and commanders can integrate lower-level offensive cyber capabilities. The result is a more realistic two-way cyber environment. Cardon declares. You have to rely on a constantly improving architecture, network hygiene and good user practices.
Army cyber has had discussions with private industry on security, Gen. Cardon allows. The conclusion is that protecting against a nation-state actor is almost impossible because the attacker has the resources of a government to bear against a small target.
The nation-state attacker can wait a long time for that single opportunity, perhaps born of a human mistake, to become available. Some emerging technologies offer hope, he notes. Data analytics could aggregate information in ways never before achieved, for example. Some cyber companies already are releasing threat data that would have been top secret a few years ago, the general observes, but these companies simply are using available data aggregated in new ways.
Each of the U. Cardon explains. The Army did it the hardest way: It spent a significant amount of time determining how to do it and ultimately created an entirely new command to serve as its cyber force, the general states. Over the long term, this will prove an advantage, he adds. Each service also tends to approach cyber from the perspective of its main operational domain—air for the Air Force and sea for the Navy.
The Army has an inherent advantage in cyberspace, Gen. Cardon offers, because ultimately most cyber effects are against a person. This does not mean the Army goes alone in cyber. The service will have teams in the Cyber Mission Force by , and they are being trained to the same joint standard, which improves interaction among the services in cyber.
Cardon points out that he has substantial interaction with his counterparts in the other services. While the U. The four individual service networks are becoming a single network, but the current construct still is service-related, Gen.
Cardon says. CYBERCOM will play an increasingly greater role, but the issue of centralization versus decentralization will continue to define its relationship with military cyber organizations. Along the same lines, many exercises have shown the value of a joint approach to cyber.
When these different perspectives are put together, the result is a joint view that accounts for all the physical domains, which provides a greater competitive advantage for U. Competence and character really matter in cyberspace, the general adds. The Army must staff cyber personnel with top talent, which is in high demand throughout government, academia and the commercial sector. The Reserve components provide an option, but the Army must work to retain its skilled cyber professionals.
Cardon allows that he has spoken with the directors of the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve components on how to identify the right people within those two organizations to provide effective cyber expertise when needed. This is a good opportunity for the Army, given the size of the Guard and Reserve together. He believes the Army should completely re-examine the way it conducts cyber training. Conventional Army forces deploy, return and experience a reset period before they go back to the field.
Cyber forces have no reset period; they are deployed all the time. They must adapt while operational in an Army that is fairly hierarchical, with well-established rules built over a number of years. He says the Army is not struggling to recruit the right people for cyber. Many people join the Army to receive this type of training, he points out. The problem is on the other end. After six years of training, the Army-minted cyber experts are hard to retain.
Other branches of government as well as the private sector are attractive alternatives for a variety of reasons. Army cyber personnel retention is an issue for both uniformed and civilian experts, the general allows, and the solution likely will require another type of change.
Budget resources are not an issue. The problem is that the government shutdown and furloughs have wreaked havoc with consistent and predictable long-term funding, which in turn affects programs and training. I must say, I am pessimistic that the Army, as a Government entity, and with it's current culture, will ever be able to adapt fast enough. The Cyber soldier will be too busy doing sexual harrassment training, PT tests, and other mandatory training within guidelines.
Meanwhile, the fat kid in mom's basement drinking monster energy drinks and has no rules and plenty of time will be the best cyber warrior.
And, that fat kid has no desire to join the military. More information about text formats. Skip to main content. Search form Search. Close AD.
Soldiers of the U. Army cyber is experiencing a convergence of intelligence, electronics and communications disciplines. By Robert K. The broadening invisible threat requires a change in operational mindset. The Cyber Edge. Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
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