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Sexual abuse , also referred to as molestation , is abusive sexual behavior by one person upon another.
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Sexual abuse , also referred to as molestation , is abusive sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is often perpetrated using force or by taking advantage of another.
The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or often pejoratively molester. The use of a child, or other individuals younger than the age of consent , for sexual stimulation is referred to as child sexual abuse or statutory rape.
Spousal sexual abuse is a form of domestic violence. When the abuse involves threats of unwanted sexual contact or forced sex by a woman's husband or ex-husband, it may constitute rape , depending on the jurisdiction, and may also constitute an assault.
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which a child is abused for the sexual gratification of an adult or older adolescent. Effects of child sexual abuse include shame and self-blame ,  depression , anxiety , post-traumatic stress disorder , self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction , chronic pelvic pain , addiction , self-injury , suicidal ideation , borderline personality disorder , and propensity to re-victimization in adulthood.
With specific regard to addiction, a study by Reiger et al supports previous findings that adverse life events increase sensitivity to drug rewards and bolster drug reward signaling by exposing an association between heightened limbic response to cocaine cues. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest , and results in more serious and long-term psychological trauma , especially in the case of parental incest.
People with developmental disabilities are often victims of sexual abuse. Elderly people, especially those with dementia, can be at risk of abuse. There were over 6, "safeguarding concerns and alerts" at UK care homes from to These included alleged inappropriate touching and worse allegations.
Offenders were most often other residents but staff also offended. It is suspected some care homes may deliberately overlook these offenses. Sometimes abuse victims are not believed because they are not seen as credible witnesses due to their dementia. Perpetrators frequently target victims who they know are unlikely to be believed.
Spouses and partners sometimes continue to pursue sexual relations, without realising they no longer have this right, because the person with dementia can no longer consent. Sex abuse is one of the most common forms of abuse in nursing homes [ citation needed ]. If a nursing home fails to do proper background checks on an employee who subsequently abuses residents, the home can be liable for negligence.
If nursing homes fail to supervise staff or train staff to recognise signs of abuse, the home can also be liable for negligence. Sexual abuse has been linked to the development of psychotic symptoms in abused children. Treatment for psychotic symptoms may also be involved in sexual abuse treatment.
In regards to long term psychological treatment, prolonged exposure therapy has been tested as a method of long-term PTSD treatment for victims of sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s and originally delivered to children. Programmes delivered to parents were developed in the s and took the form of one-off meetings, two to three hours long.
The term survivor is sometimes used for a living victim, including victims of usually non-fatal harm, to honor and empower the strength of an individual to heal, in particular a living victim of sexual abuse or assault. Sexual misconduct can occur where one person uses a position of authority to compel another person to engage in an otherwise unwanted sexual activity.
For example, sexual harassment in the workplace might involve an employee being coerced into a sexual situation out of fear of being dismissed. Sexual harassment in education might involve a student submitting to the sexual advances of a person in authority in fear of being punished, for example by being given a failing grade.
Several sexual abuse scandals have involved abuse of religious authority and often cover-up among non-abusers, including cases in the Southern Baptist Convention ,  Catholic Church , Episcopalian religion,  Islam ,  Jehovah's Witnesses , Lutheran church,  Methodist Church,  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ,  the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints , Orthodox Judaism ,  other branches of Judaism ,  and various cults.
Sexual abuse is a problem in some minority communities. In , a number of Hispanic victims were included in the settlement of a massive sexual abuse case involving the Los Angeles archdiocese of the Catholic Church.
The non-profit group was founded in by Sylvia Coleman , an African-American sexual abuse survivor and national sexual abuse prevention expert. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal titled Sexual Abuse , see Sexual Abuse journal. See also: Domestic violence and Marital rape. Main article: Child sexual abuse. Main article: Sexual abuse of people with developmental disabilities. See also: Abusive power and control , Power harassment , and Rankism. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Sexual coercion. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 28 January Archives of Sexual Behavior. Child molester is a pejorative term applied to both the pedophile and incest offender. Medline Plus.
National Library of Medicine. Eugene Walker August American Psychologist. Retrieved Abuse, sexual child : generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person. Child Abuse and Neglect. Clinical Psychology Review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic factors prospectively associated with intimate partner violence perpetration among South African heterosexual men.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse are associated with a heightened limbic response to cocaine cues. Addiction Biology. Child Maltreatment. Archived from the original on Pedophilia and Sexual Offending Against Children. Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing.
Louis: Elsevier. Protective factors for psychotic symptoms among poly-victimized children. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Prolonged exposure for treating PTSD among female methadone patients who were survivors of sexual abuse in Israel.
DOI: Child Abuse Review. Violence and Victims. Retrieved 1 August Case Reports of the Mormon Alliance Volume 1. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press. Violence Against Women. Outline of human sexuality. Gender binary Gender identity Men who have sex with men Sexual identity Sexual orientation Women who have sex with women. Human sexuality portal Biology portal. Sexual ethics. Child marriage Child pornography law Child prostitution Child sex tourism. Child-on-child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse law Harassment Rape law.
Topical outline. Sexual abuse. Aggression Causes of sexual violence Effects and aftermath of rape Misandry Misogyny Rape culture Rape trauma syndrome Sociobiological theories of rape Victim blaming. Laws regarding child sexual abuse Laws regarding rape Sexually violent predator laws.
Child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome False allegation of child sexual abuse. Law portal. Catholic Church sexual abuse cases. In confession. Category:Catholic priests convicted of sexual abuse.
Parish transfers of abusive Catholic priests 20th—21st century. Judgment film The Boys of St. Law portal Catholicism portal. Consequences of external causes T66—T78 , — Hyperthermia Heat syncope.
Hypothermia Immersion foot syndromes Trench foot Tropical immersion foot Warm water immersion foot Chilblains Frostbite Aerosol burn Cold intolerance Acrocyanosis Erythrocyanosis crurum. Radiation poisoning Radiation burn Chronic radiation keratosis Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy Radiation acne Radiation-induced cancer Radiation recall reaction Radiation-induced erythema multiforme Radiation-induced hypertrophic scar Radiation-induced keloid Radiation-induced morphea.
The pope asserted that "there is no place in the priesthood or religious life for those who would harm the young. Trainings Webinar Archive. Indeed, The changing face of the priesthood: A reflection on the priest's crisis of soul. Although 19 percent of the accused priests had alcohol or substance abuse problems, only 9 percent used drugs or alcohol during the alleged instances of abuse. Diocese of Orange.
Number of sexually abused united states. Types of Child Abuse
'Thousands of US child migrants sexually abused' - BBC News
Child sexual abuse , also called child molestation , is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school, or work in places where child labor is common. Child marriage is one of the main forms of child sexual abuse; UNICEF has stated that child marriage "represents perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls".
The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child,  but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children. Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.
A well-documented, long-term negative effect is repeated or additional victimization in adolescence and adulthood. A specific characteristic pattern of symptoms has not been identified,  and there are several hypotheses about the causality of these associations. Child abuse , including sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.
Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse,  some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse.
Kendler et al. Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins. A meta-analysis by Bruce Rind et al. Depending on the age and size of the child, and the degree of force used, child sexual abuse may cause internal lacerations and bleeding.
In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death. Child sexual abuse may cause infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Vaginitis has also been reported. Research has shown that traumatic stress, including stress caused by sexual abuse, causes notable changes in brain functioning and development.
Ito et al. Some studies indicate that sexual or physical abuse in children can lead to the overexcitation of an undeveloped limbic system. Male and female victims were similarly affected. Navalta et al. Because the abused subjects' verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration. Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult is known as child incestuous abuse ,  and has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity to damage the young person.
Prevalence of parental child sexual abuse is difficult to assess due to secrecy and privacy; some estimates state that 20 million Americans have been victimized by parental incest as children.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children CSEC is defined by the Declaration of the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm in , as "sexual abuse by an adult accompanied by remuneration in cash or in kind to the child or third person s.
CSEC is particularly a problem in developing countries of Asia. In the United Kingdom, the term child sexual exploitation covers any form of sexual abuse which includes an exchange of a resource for sexual activity with a child. However, in the years since the birth of the concept of child sexual exploitation, the notion of exchange has been widened to include other types of gain, including love, acquisition of status and protection from harm.
Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry provides guidelines for what to say to the victim and what to do following the disclosure.
Therefore, the parental caregiver teaches the child to mask his or her issues. In many jurisdictions, abuse that is suspected, not necessarily proven, requires reporting to child protection agencies, such as the Child Protection Services in the United States.
A private environment away from suspected abusers is desired for interviewing and examining. Leading statements that can distort the story are avoided. As disclosing abuse can be distressing and sometimes even shameful, reassuring the child that he or she has done the right thing by telling and that they are not bad and that the abuse was not their fault helps in disclosing more information.
Anatomically correct dolls are sometimes used to help explain what happened, although some researchers consider the dolls too explicit and overstimulating, which might contribute to non-abused children behaving with the dolls in one or more ways that suggest they were sexually abused. The initial approach to treating a person who has been a victim of sexual abuse is dependent upon several important factors:. The goal of treatment is not only to treat current mental health issues, and trauma related symptoms, but also to prevent future ones.
Children often present for treatment in one of several circumstances, including criminal investigations, custody battles, problematic behaviors, and referrals from child welfare agencies.
The three major modalities for therapy with children and adolescents are family therapy , group therapy , and individual therapy. Which course is used depends on a variety of factors that must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For instance, treatment of young children generally requires strong parental involvement and can benefit from family therapy.
Adolescents tend to be more independent; they can benefit from individual or group therapy. Roland C. Summit, a medical doctor, defined the different stages the victims of child sexual abuse go through, called child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.
He suggested that children who are victims of sexual abuse display a range of symptoms that include secrecy, helplessness, entrapment, accommodation, delayed and conflicted disclosure and recantation. Adults who have been sexually abused as children often present for treatment with a secondary mental health issue, which can include substance abuse , eating disorders , personality disorders , depression , and conflict in romantic or interpersonal relationships.
Generally, the approach is to focus on the present problem, rather than the abuse itself. For instance, a person with a history of sexual abuse suffering from severe depression would be treated for depression.
However, there is often an emphasis on cognitive restructuring due to the deep-seated nature of the trauma. Some newer techniques such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR have been shown to be effective. Sexual abuse is associated with many sub-clinical behavioral issues as well, including re-victimization in the teenage years, a bipolar-like switching between sexual compulsion and shut-down, and distorted thinking on the subject of sexual abuse for instance, that it is common and happens to everyone.
When first presenting for treatment, the patient can be fully aware of their abuse as an event, but their appraisal of it is often distorted, such as believing that the event was unremarkable a form of isolation. Frequently, victims do not make the connection between their abuse and their present pathology.
Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s. Some programme are delivered to children and can include one-to-one work  and group work. Offenders are more likely to be relatives or acquaintances of their victim than strangers.
More offenders are male than female, though the percentage varies between studies. According to C. Early research in the s and s began to classify offenders based on their motivations and traits. Groth and Birnbaum categorized child sexual offenders into two groups, "fixated" and "regressed". This study also showed that adult sexual orientation was not related to the sex of the victim targeted, e.
Later work Holmes and Holmes, expanded on the types of offenders and their psychological profiles. They are divided as follows: . Causal factors of child sex offenders are not known conclusively. The US Government Accountability Office concluded, "the existence of a cycle of sexual abuse was not established.
Even the majority of studies found that most adult sex offenders said they had not been sexually abused during childhood, but studies varied in terms of their estimates of the percentage of such offenders who had been abused, from 0 to 79 percent.
More recent prospective longitudinal research—studying children with documented cases of sexual abuse over time to determine what percentage become adult offenders—has demonstrated that the cycle of violence theory is not an adequate explanation for why people molest children. Offenders may use cognitive distortions to facilitate their offenses, such as minimization of the abuse, victim blaming , and excuses.
Pedophilia is a condition in which an adult or older adolescent is primarily or exclusively attracted to prepubescent children, whether the attraction is acted upon or not. In law enforcement , the term pedophile is sometimes used to describe those accused or convicted of child sexual abuse under sociolegal definitions of child including both prepubescent children and adolescents younger than the local age of consent ;  however, not all child sexual offenders are pedophiles and not all pedophiles engage in sexual abuse of children.
Recidivism rates for sex offenders are lower than for the general criminal population. Because recidivism is defined and measured differently from study to study, one can arrive at inaccurate conclusions being made based on comparison of two or more studies that are not conducted with similar methodology.
When a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more other children or adolescent youths, and no adult is directly involved, it is defined as child-on-child sexual abuse. The definition includes any sexual activity between children that occurs without consent , without equality, or due to coercion ,  whether the offender uses physical force, threats, trickery or emotional manipulation to compel cooperation. When sexual abuse is perpetrated by one sibling upon another, it is known as " intersibling abuse ", a form of incest.
Unlike research on adult offenders, a strong causal relationship has been established between child and adolescent offenders and these offenders' own prior victimization, by either adults or other children. Although there is no known cure for pedophilia,  there are a number of treatments for pedophiles and child sexual abusers.
Some of the treatments focus on attempting to change the sexual preference of pedophiles, while others focus on keeping pedophiles from committing child sexual abuse, or on keeping child sexual abusers from committing child sexual abuse again. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , for example, aims to reduce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that may increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children.
Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children. The most common form of this therapy is relapse prevention , where the patient is taught to identify and respond to potentially risky situations based on principles used for treating addictions. The evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy is mixed.
Based on self-disclosure data , a meta-analysis of studies estimated a global prevalence of The rates of self-disclosed abuse for specific continents were as follows: . A meta-analysis of 65 studies from 22 countries found a global prevalence of In that analysis, Africa had the highest prevalence rate of child sexual abuse A ten-country school-based study in southern Africa in found Rates among year-olds were Comparing the same schools in eight countries between and , age-standardised on the Botswana male sample, there was no significant decrease between and among females in any country and inconsistent changes among males.
The prevalence of child sexual abuse in Africa is compounded by the virgin cleansing myth that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. The myth is prevalent in South Africa , Zimbabwe ,  Zambia and Nigeria and is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children. Child rape is on the rise [ when? Child welfare groups believe that the number of unreported incidents could be up to 10 times that number.
The largest increase in attacks was against children under seven. The virgin cleansing myth is especially common in South Africa , which has the highest number of HIV-positive citizens in the world. Eastern Cape social worker Edith Kriel notes that "child abusers are often relatives of their victims — even their fathers and providers.
A number of high-profile baby rapes appeared since including the fact that they required extensive reconstructive surgery to rebuild urinary, genital, abdominal, or tracheal systems.