Does castrating sex offenders work-Chemical castration - Wikipedia

Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs , whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer , or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration , where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body, [1] chemical castration does not remove organs, nor is it a form of sterilization. In May , The New York Times reported that a number of countries use chemical castration on sex offenders , often in return for reduced sentences. When used on males, these drugs can reduce sex drive, compulsive sexual fantasies, and capacity for sexual arousal. Life-threatening side effects are rare, but some users show increases in body fat and reduced bone density, which increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis.

Does castrating sex offenders work

Sexual crimes are a significant public health problem, efforts to prevent recidivism and protect the community are worthy, and public safety can take precedence over criminal's rights. The medication will have to be administered until a judge, not a doctor, deemed it no longer necessary. In addition, because this choice arises in the inherently coercive context of sentencing, and because of the capacity for abuse of this sentencing option, such treatment should be available only under Teen theme party kit most carefully controlled circumstances. Some criminologists argue that the appearance of a lower recidivism rate in male sex offenders who take chemical castration treatment than in those who do not can be explained by factors other than biological effects Does castrating sex offenders work the medication. Some neurologists acknowledge that testosterone plays a role in sexual arousal but that reducing sex drive will likely not reduce inappropriate sex behaviour. InJohn Money became the first American to employ chemical castration by prescribing medroxyprogesterone acetate MPA, the base ingredient now used in DMPA as a treatment for a patient dealing with pedophilic urges. Well, it was quite interesting, it arose because the Committee for the Prevention of Torture was concerned that they were carrying out physical castrations and there was a working Does castrating sex offenders work that went there and were appalled at the idea of physical castration. Verified by Psychology Today.

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Retrieved 5 February Usually that's not the main problem. Archived from the original PDF on 21 October J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. Fox News. Bobby Jindal, a Republican, pushed oDes a law that allows judges to require chemical or surgical castration of repeat child molesters. Circumcision Penectomy Penile prosthesis Preputioplasty. Retrieved Does castrating sex offenders work May Depending on where they are they might then get started on the medication and then they would take part in a more in-depth treatment. This means that someone who is convicted of a sexual offense that qualifies chemical castration will dork under a lifetime level of supervision that is taxpayer-funded. University Park, Pa. Some legends say that the Mongol Genghis Khan castrzting castrated by a Tangut princess using a knife, who wanted revenge against his treatment of the Tanguts and to stop him from raping her. The punishment should fit the crime. Archived from the Bookstore gangbang on 18 January

For the first time in Asia, in July , Korea introduced using chemical castration on sexual offenders.

  • The Mirror reports today: " paedophiles are chemically castrated in jail.
  • Pedophilia is defined as a primary, exclusive, or sustained sexual interest in children under age
  • February 21,
  • He knew he was doing something awful and bad, but his only deterrence, he said, was his ignorance of female anatomy.

For the first time in Asia, in July , Korea introduced using chemical castration on sexual offenders. Under the current law, perpetrators of sexual crimes against minors aged less than 16 yr are subject to chemical castration.

There have been growing calls for tougher punishment against sexual offenders and stronger preventive measures in the aftermath of a series of violent crimes victimizing women and children. Recently, a Cabinet meeting approved a revised bill, under which Korea will expand chemical castration to include those convicted of sexual crimes against minors under age 19, and retroactively apply the laws governing sexual offender personal information disclosure.

Using hormonal drugs to reduce sexual violence recidivism is known as chemical castration. The first reported attempt of hormonal manipulation to reduce pathological sexual behavior occurred in , when diethylstilbestrol was prescribed to lower testosterone levels 1. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate have been used throughout the United States, Canada, and some European countries to diminish sexual fantasies and sexual impulses in sexual offenders 2.

A more recent and promising development in the treatment of paraphilias is using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone LHRH agonists such as leuprolide acetate and goserelin. In , California became the first state in the United States to authorize the use of either chemical or surgical castration for certain sexual offenders who were being released from prison into the community.

This legislation was extremely controversial at the time 3 ; however, eight additional states have subsequently passed laws that provide some form of castration for sexual offenders under consideration for parole or probation.

Currently, similar debates on the legislation and expansion of chemical castration have taken place in Korea. Testosterone is the major hormone associated with libido and sexual function, and several studies have reported that violent sexual offenders have higher levels of androgens than do nonviolent comparison groups and androgen levels correlate positively with both prior violence and the severity of sexual aggression 4 - 6. However, a clear cause-and-effect relationship between testosterone levels and sexual offending remains uncertain 7.

Nevertheless, various comprehensive theories of sexual offending have incorporated hormonal factors despite surprisingly little evidence 8 , and both surgical and chemical castration undoubtedly reduce sexual interest, sexual performance, and sexual reoffending 9. Chemical castration using LHRH agonists reduces circulating testosterone to very low levels, and also results in very low levels of recidivism despite the strong psychological factors that contribute to sexual offending Chemical castration has some advantages over surgical castration.

First, although chemical castration is potentially life-long for some offenders, it might allow sexual offenders to have normal sexual activity in context with psychotherapy. Second, some sexual offenders may voluntarily receive chemical castration.

Third, chemical castration may be a more realistic restriction than electronic ankle bracelets or surgical castration. Fourth, unlike surgical castration, the effects of anti-libido medication are reversible after discontinuation.

Finally, the general public may feel relieved knowing that sexual offenders are undergoing chemical castration. Nevertheless, there has been an ongoing debate about chemical castration for a variety of social and medical reasons. Social problems include that chemical castration may not guarantee human rights for involuntary cases performed without informed consent of the sexual offender, and thus may be regarded as only punishment and not treatment.

Chemical castration has been executed without informed consent in Korea and in three states of the Unites States 2. Additionally, increasing the population of sexual offenders who undergo chemical castration will create tremendous socioeconomic burdens.

It costs 5 million won USD 4, per person annually for medication and monitoring when leuprolide acetate injections are administered every 3 months in Korea. Medical considerations are also important, and contemporary doctors should be knowledgeable of these issues. First, chemical castration is no longer effective after it is discontinued; therefore, the spontaneity for receiving medication is prerequisite to overcoming this limitation. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry guidelines suggest that combined psychotherapy and pharmacological therapy is associated with better efficacy compared with either treatment as monotherapy Furthermore, as we have experienced in treating prostate cancer, chemical castration may have serious side effects.

Drugs such as medroxyprogesterone acetate, cyproterone acetate, and LHRH agonists, when administered for chemical castration, can induce a significant decline not only in serum testosterone but also in estradiol. Estrogens play an important physiological role even in men because they have beneficial effects on skeletal growth and bone maturation, brain function, and cardiovascular biology.

Therefore, chemical castration is associated with various side effects, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and impaired glucose and lipid metabolism Depression, hot flashes, infertility, and anemia can also occur. Given that the minimal duration of treatment is 3 to 5 yr for severe paraphilia when a high risk of sexual violence exists 10 , the side effects of chemical castration can increase in a time-dependent manner. Sexual crimes are a significant public health problem, efforts to prevent recidivism and protect the community are worthy, and public safety can take precedence over criminal's rights.

Chemical castration reduces recidivism effectively when offered to sexual offenders within the context of simultaneous comprehensive psychotherapeutic treatment. However, chemical castration under the current laws is vaguely positioned between punishment and treatment due to lack of informed consent by the recipient, and so remains a problematic issue for medical ethics.

Therefore, physicians are obligated to very closely monitor any potential treatment complications in sexual offenders undergoing chemical castration. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Korean Med Sci. Published online Jan Find articles by Joo Yong Lee.

Find articles by Kang Su Cho. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. References 1. Miller RD. Forced administration of sex-drive reducing medications to sex offenders: treatment or punishment? Psychol Public Policy Law. Scott CL, Holmberg T. Castration of sex offenders: prisoners' rights versus public safety. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. Berlin FS. N Engl J Med. Assessment of aggressive behavior and plasma testosterone in a young criminal population.

Psychosom Med. Plasma testosterone levels in the rapist. Serum testosterone in violent and nonviolent young offenders. J Clin Psychol. The role of central and peripheral hormones in sexual and violent recidivism in sex offenders. Testosterone and aggressiveness. Med Sci Monit. Grubin D, Beech A.

Chemical castration for sex offenders. World J Biol Psychiatry. Gooren LJ. Clinical review: Ethical and medical considerations of androgen deprivation treatment of sex offenders.

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Body hair may sometimes decrease and is less coarse. Additionally, increasing the population of sexual offenders who undergo chemical castration will create tremendous socioeconomic burdens. See also: Neutering and Veterinary sterilization surgery. In animals, the behavioral effects of gonad removal differ along lines of species and not sex, i. Failure to continue or complete treatment is a ground for revocation of probation, parole, or sentence suspension.

Does castrating sex offenders work

Does castrating sex offenders work

Does castrating sex offenders work

Does castrating sex offenders work

Does castrating sex offenders work

Does castrating sex offenders work. Search form

It also requires continued chemical castration for molesters who have completed their prison sentences but are committed indefinitely to state mental hospitals because they are deemed to be a continued threat to the community.

In many cases, prosecutors don't much care for granting parole to serial molesters, even if they've been castrated. Yet curbing the malevolent predilections of predators with criminal histories is not as simple as prescribing medication or picking up a scalpel, many say. Castration may lower someone's sex drive, but it doesn't lower their risk to offend. The Southern California proscecutor's office has opposed releasing Kevin Reilly, a twice-convicted child molester who volunteered for surgical castration in He obtained a court order for the surgery and paid for it himself.

After serving sentences for molesting three girls and showing pornography to a boy, he was deemed a sexually violent predator by prosecutors and has been locked up in state mental hospitals since There are no statistics on the number of men who have volunteered for surgical castration or been given chemical injections. About , sex offenders are currently incarcerated in state prisons, according to U. Department of Justice figures. Some , are listed on sex offender registration lists. But just like legal experts, medical professionals can't agree on whether castrating child molesters within the criminal justice system is a good solution to a pernicious problem.

Fred Berlin , founder of Baltimore's Johns Hopkins Sexual Disorders Clinic, now known as the Sexual Behavior Consultation Unit, which specalizes in treating pedophiles and others with sexual disorders including voyeurism and exhibitionism.

A s survey of pedophiles who had received clinic treatment including chemical castration showed a recidivism rate of about 8 percent, he said. Lowering testosterone levels, which in turn lowers libidos, can benefit pedophiles, who by definition are driven by sexual urges toward children.

It wouldn't have much effect on psycopaths or "someone with no sense of moral responsibility — there's no medicine in the world that is going to instill that in a person," Berlin said. Passing castration laws does not address the very real problem of how to treat child molesters in a humane way, he said. Skip to content. Larry Don McQuay, a former school bus driver and repeat child molester, voluntarily went under the knife to have his testes removed in a bid for a reduced sentence in Texas.

He was paroled in to a work-release farming program in Bexar County, where he lives in the county jail. He is elgible for release in He was just a little boy when he first molested a child. At age 7 he tried to rape his 3-year-old cousin by luring her into a closet. Alabama legislator Steve Hurst has reintroduced a bill that would force child molesters to be surgically castrated at their own expense.

Why did he ask for such a drastic measure? Francis Phillip Tullier, now 81, is a convicted child molester who faced hundreds of counts of child molestation. He pleaded guilty to three counts and volunteered for surgical castration. He was paroled in West Baton Rouge Sheriff's Offi. Then 78, Tullier was serving a year sentence handed down in for molesting three girls. States including California, Texas and Louisiana allow judges to require that injections of drugs such as the contraceptive Depo-Provera are administered repeat molesters.

The drug lowers testosterone levels. I had to think outside the box," Fisher told The News. Louisiana Gov. When used on males, these drugs can reduce sex drive, compulsive sexual fantasies, and capacity for sexual arousal. Life-threatening side effects are rare, but some users show increases in body fat and reduced bone density, which increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis.

They may also experience gynecomastia development of larger-than-normal mammary glands in males. When used on females, the effects are similar, though there is little research about chemically lowering females's sex drive or female-specific anaphrodisiacs, since most research focuses on the opposite, but anti-androgenic hormone regimens would lower testosterone in females which can impact sex drive or sexual response.

Also seen is a sudden shrinking in bone mass and discoloration of the lips, [7] [8] reduced body hair, [9] and muscle mass. The first use of chemical castration occurred in , when diethylstilbestrol was used with the purpose of lowering men's testosterone. But benperidol does not affect testosterone and is therefore not a castration agent. Chemical castration is often seen as an easier alternative to life imprisonment or the death penalty because it allows the release of sex offenders while reducing or eliminating the chance that they reoffend.

In , in an experiment by P. Gagne, 48 males with long-standing histories of sexually deviant behaviour were given medroxyprogesterone acetate for as long as 12 months. Forty of those subjects were recorded as to have diminished desires for deviant sexual behaviour, less frequent sexual fantasies, and greater control over sexual urges.

The research recorded a continuation of this more positive behaviour after the administration of the drug had ended with no evidence of adverse side effects and recommended medroxyprogesterone acetate along with counselling as a successful method of treatment for serial sex offenders.

Spaying is observed to cause female animals to stop mating in the same species as castration causes male animals to stop mating. However, in animal species where females continue their mating behaviour after being spayed, the males also continue to mate after being castrated.

So there are scientists who argue that it makes no biological sense to assume that any treatment that emulates castration would remove sex drive in men but not in women.

These scientists argue that these observations, along with the fact that humans are animals and subject to evolution , show that it is flawed to think that male sexuality would be treatable by medication if female sexuality is not.

Some criminologists argue that the appearance of a lower recidivism rate in male sex offenders who take chemical castration treatment than in those who do not can be explained by factors other than biological effects of the medication. One hypothesis is that men who accept the negative effects of hormonal treatment in exchange for shorter prison sentence are distinct in that they value freedom from incarceration higher than men who rather stay in prison for a longer time than face the side effects of chemical castration.

These criminologists explain apparently lower recidivism as an artifact of men who accept chemical castration being more engaged in hiding the evidence for reoffending, and that paroling such offenders constitute a risk of releasing criminals who commit as many new crimes as others but are better at hiding it. These criminologists also argue that police investigators treating castrated men as less likely to reoffend than non-castrated men may cause an investigation bias and self-fulfilling prophecy , and that men who sell some of their prescribed medicines on the black market for drugs get a hidden income that improve their ability to afford measures to hide recidivism that is not available to men without such prescriptions.

Some neurologists acknowledge that testosterone plays a role in sexual arousal but that reducing sex drive will likely not reduce inappropriate sex behaviour. These researchers argue that since a weaker internal signal in the brain means a higher requirement for external stimulation to create a feedback loop that tires the brain circuits out as in orgasm and lead to satisfaction, a reduction of the internal stimulation from hormones would make the required external stimulation stronger and also more specific, as weaker signals involve narrower ranges of other brain functions in their loops.

These scientists therefore argue that the biological as opposed to sociological effect of reduced testosterone is to make it more difficult and not easier to use masturbation without pornography or other socially acceptable substitutes to manage remaining sex drive in a former offender, and that many community persons both male and female find that a lower initial arousal makes it more difficult to orgasm by masturbation without pornography or with non-preferred stimulation.

In March , Guillermo Fontana of CNN reported that officials in Mendoza , a province in Argentina , approved the use of voluntary chemical castration for rapists, in return for reduced sentences. In , a repeat child sex offender who had been subject to chemical castration was accused of inappropriately touching and kissing a young girl. He was found not guilty by a jury, which was not informed of the context of his previous offenses.

The drug cyproterone acetate has been commonly used for chemical castration throughout Europe. It resembles the drug MPA used in America. In the United Kingdom , computer scientist Alan Turing , famous for his contributions to mathematics and computer science, pleaded guilty in to a charge of gross indecency for having a homosexual relationship and accepted chemical castration as a term of his probation, thus avoiding imprisonment.

In the s, German physicians used antiandrogens as a treatment for sexual paraphilia. The program developers note the voluntary nature of the program a crucial factor in its success. They initially planned to cover ten inmates per prison, contemplating a possible enlargement to other prisons in the future. The program also included a rehabilitation component. On September 25, , Poland legislated forcible chemical castration of child molesters.

On April 30, , a man in the United Kingdom found guilty of attempting to murder a year-old woman in order to abduct and rape her two granddaughters agreed to undergo chemical castration as part of the terms of his sentence. On March 6, , Moldova legislated forcible chemical castration of child molesters; the law came into effect on July 1, On June 5, , Estonia passed a law that allows voluntary chemical castration as a part of complex treatment for less serious sex offenders as an alternative of imprisonment.

However, the treatment is rarely used in practice. In October and November , North Macedonia authorities were working on developing a legal framework and standard procedure for implementation of chemical castration that would be used for convicted child molesters. The castration is intended to be voluntarily, where as for the child molesters that repeat the criminal act it should be mandatory. After the outrage following the gang rape of a woman in Delhi , the Government has submitted a draft proposing chemical castration along with an imprisonment of up to 30 years for rape convicts as part of the anti-rape law in India.

The ministry is preparing a detailed bill and the recommended changes are under review. One of the accused in the rape case is a juvenile and aged a few months less than 18 years. A view has been expressed by a section that only those below 15 years should be described as juvenile. In , the Indonesian President Joko Widodo introduced a presidential regulation to allow chemical castration to be handed down as a punishment to child sex offenders and pedophiles.

The regulation alters the contents of the Law on Child Protection. In May , two brothers from Haifa —convicted child molesters—agreed to undergo chemical castration to avoid committing further crimes. In New Zealand, the antilibidinal drug cyproterone acetate is sold under the name Androcur. In November convicted paedophile Robert Jason Dittmer attacked a victim while on the drug.

In a study into the effectiveness of the drug by Dr David Wales for the Corrections Department found that no research had been conducted in New Zealand into the effectiveness and such trials were "ethically and practically very difficult to carry out. In October , the Russian parliament approved a law that allows a court-requested forensic psychiatrist to prescribe the chemical castration of convicted sex offenders who have harmed children under the age of In July , South Korea enacted a law allowing judges the power to sentence sex offenders who have attacked children under the age of 16 to chemical castration.

On May 23, , a serial sex offender legally called Park in the court case was ordered by the committee to undergo this treatment after his most recent attempted offense. On January 3, , a South Korean court sentenced a year-old man to 15 years in jail and chemical castration, the country's first-ever chemical castration sentence. In South Korea, taking pictures of women without their consent, even in public, is considered to be criminal sexual assault , punishable by a fine of under 10 million won and up to 5 years' imprisonment.

In , John Money became the first American to employ chemical castration by prescribing medroxyprogesterone acetate MPA, the base ingredient now used in DMPA as a treatment for a patient dealing with pedophilic urges. The drug has thereafter become a mainstay of chemical castration in America.

Despite its long history and established use, the drug has never been approved by the FDA for use as a treatment for sexual offenders. California was the first U.

Should sex offenders be chemically castrated?

What's happening: Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey last week signed a bill into law that will require criminals found guilty of some sex crimes against children to undergo chemical castration before they are granted parole. Chemical castration involves using medication to lower a person's hormone levels and limit their libido.

Unlike surgical castration, it is reversible and does not affect a patient's fertility. Under Alabama's new law, inmates would begin taking the medication a month before being paroled and continue receiving treatment once they're free. Stopping treatment without the state's permission would be a felony. Several other states have similar laws, although it is optional rather than mandatory in some cases.

Why there's debate: Advocates for chemical castration believe it's an effective way of protecting children from known sexual predators. Steve Hurst , who introduced the bill in the Alabama House of Representatives. There are also concerns about the precedent set by a law that establishes government-mandated medical treatment, especially given the potential side effects.

Others argue that changing someone's hormones does not address the true causes behind pedophilia. But unlike other therapeutic approaches, chemical castration or surgical castration, for that matter does not address the antisocial instincts that often underlie such crimes.

For some of those serious guys, that should be done but that kind of abuse is in their mind not in their body. Chemical castration is more effective when used as part of rehabilitation rather than punishment. I think if we start using interventions like this there is a high risk we will abuse them and use it in cases where they are extremely harmful.

In conjunction with that effort, it should be appreciated that people who are sexually attracted to children need and deserve access to appropriate mental health treatment. The bill uses hatred of pedophiles to give the government power it shouldn't have.

On the other, this is very clearly a human rights violation, and what will begin as a way to punish people who have carried out horrific crimes could one day be expanded to just about any group. How old is too old to be president? Is solitary confinement torture? Why are people willing to risk death for a selfie? Search News Search web.

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Does castrating sex offenders work

Does castrating sex offenders work