Advanced prostate cancer solutions-Advanced prostate cancer | Prostate Cancer UK

For years, the only available treatments for these aggressive tumors were androgen-deprivation therapies ADT that block testosterone, the male sex hormone that makes prostate cancer cells grow faster. Giving ADT slows cancer progression, but tumors typically develop resistance against it within three years and start growing again. But then newer treatments for metastatic prostate cancer started showing up. A drug called docetaxel was approved by the FDA in , followed by cabazitaxel in , sipuleucel-T in , abiraterone in , and enzalutamide in Each of these drugs targets metastatic prostate cancer in different ways, and men who took any one of them in clinical trials lived longer than men who took ADT by itself.

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

The main androgens are testosterone and DHT; they act like a fuel, encouraging Digital strip cancer to grow. Local treatments get rid of cancer from a specific, limited area of the body. This discussion should also address the current state of the cancer, such as:. A computer uses this information about the size, shape, Advanced prostate cancer solutions location of the prostate cancer to determine how much radiation is needed to destroy it. However, because it requires surgery and is irreversible, nearly all men today choose drug therapy instead. BoneKEy Rep. Follow-Up Care.

David rose stripping video. Search Harvard Health Publishing

The tests to diagnose liver metastases are the following: CT Effects of sex among teens MR Magnetic Resonanceliver function tests, liver ultrasound and liver biopsy. When David was diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, their bond only grew stronger. Improve consistency of care — Gain adherence reporting to identify patients drifting from treatment and scanning practices. Collagen is an essential building block for the entire body, from skin to gut, and more. Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently and cooking meats thoroughly. Either caramelized or Advanced prostate cancer solutions or fresh, the taste of these Once the tumor enlarges to the bladder, this causes further problems in urination and bladder control. Once prostate cancer spreads to your bones, the tumor begins to crowd out the healthy bone material. Inexpensive yet potent cancer treatments Treatments This article is about many very inexpensive cancer treatments which are very effective. Exercise regularly. Hormone therapy suppresses male hormones that help prostate cancer cells to grow. But having a father or brother with prostate cancer more Advanced prostate cancer solutions doubles your risk. Learn the benefits of becoming a Cancer Tutor Member?

Advanced prostate cancer occurs when a tumor that develops in the prostate gland spreads outside the prostate.

  • The PPS Analytics Portal is a web-based analysis and decision support tool for managing clinical care pathways, outcomes and protocol adherence.
  • While you must have heard about prostate cancer at some or the other point in your life, what do we mean by the term advanced prostate cancer?
  • Types of Cancer.

Each year, over , American men are diagnosed with cancer of the prostate gland. Other than skin cancer, it is the most common cancer affecting men, occurring primarily in men aged 65 or older.

When prostate cancer is diagnosed and treated, most often the tumor is still confined to the gland. But prostate cancer can spread to other parts of the body metastasize.

In cases of metastatic prostate cancer, there are treatments available that can stop cancer growth, control pain and other symptoms, and extend survival. Hormonal therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy, remains the mainstay for treating metastatic prostate cancer. This type of treatment is aimed at reducing the levels of male hormones androgens in the body, or stopping them from affecting prostate cancer cells. The main androgens are testosterone and DHT; they act like a fuel, encouraging prostate cancer to grow.

Most androgens are made by the testes, but a small amount is made by the adrenal glands, which sit above the kidneys and produce a number of important hormones. Without androgens, prostate cancer goes into remission, often for many years. Remission is when all signs and symptoms of cancer disappear. If a specific androgen deprivation drug does not have the desired result, your doctor may suggest a different drug, or a different form of hormonal therapy. Metastatic prostate cancer usually responds to hormonal therapy and goes into remission, but cancer cells can sometimes resist treatments.

Doctors call this condition hormone-resistant prostate cancer. PSA— prostate-specific antigen—is a substance produced by the prostate gland which may indicate the presence of cancer. In other cases, doctors may prescribe different antiandrogen drugs to try to slow cancer growth. Another way to stop the testicles from producing male hormones is an orchiectomy, a surgical procedure in which the testicles are removed.

This surgery is, in effect, a form of hormone therapy. The removal of the testicles causes most prostate cancers to stop growing or to shrink. In an orchiectomy, the scrotum the pouch of skin that holds the testicles and penis are left intact. An orchiectomy is done as an outpatient procedure. While it is probably the simplest form of hormone therapy, some men have trouble accepting the change to their anatomy. However, the insertion of artificial testicles made of silicone into the scrotum is an option to discuss with the surgeon who is performing the procedure.

Doctors sometimes recommend chemotherapy as a treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer, usually for men who fall into one of three groups:. In the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, one chemotherapy drug is usually given, rather than multiple drugs being given in combination. Some of the drugs used are docetaxel Taxotere , cabazitaxel Jevtana , mitoxantrone Novantrone and estramustine Emyct.

In most cases, the first chemotherapy drug given is docetaxel, combined with the steroid drug prednisone. If this drug does not work or stops working , other chemotherapy options may be tried. Doctors give chemotherapy in cycles; each cycle typically lasts a few weeks. A period of treatment is followed by a period of rest, which allows the body time to recover.

A number of other types of drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA for metastatic prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone treatments or chemotherapy. These drugs include:. All cancer treatments can cause side effects. Doing so will improve your quality of life and allow you to stick with your treatment plan. The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the type and dose of drugs given and the length of time they are used, and can include:.

Mouth sores are also a side effect of chemotherapy. Your doctor may recommend treatments such as:. Chemotherapy can cause changes in the way food and liquids taste, including causing an unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth.

Many people find that switching to plastic utensils helps. It may also help to avoid eating or drinking anything that comes in a can, and to use enamel-coated pots and pans for food preparation.

Bone pain. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bone can lead to pain. Medications such as bisphosphonates help relieve some of this pain. In addition, radiation is often used to manage bone pain. If given, men with metastatic prostate cancer typically receive 10 radiation treatments over the course of two weeks.

It can take a week or longer before the pain and discomfort begin to ease. Loss of erections erectile dysfunction. Men can sometimes experience erectile dysfunction when being treated for prostate cancer. If you are experiencing this side effect, discuss your concerns with your doctor. He or she can recommend a number of possible treatments. Approaches used to manage this side effect include:. Loss of bladder control incontinence.

After radiation treatment, incontinence can occur, but not necessarily right away; it could begin as long as 18 months after the treatment ends. Talk with your doctor about what you can expect after treatment and the best way to cope with this side effect.

Some ways to manage incontinence include:. Many cancer treatments can cause digestive tract problems; adjustments to eating habits may be of help:. The best way to make decisions about health care is to educate yourself about your diagnosis and about the members of your health care team, including nurses, social workers, and patient navigators. In addition to creating a treatment summary, here are some tips for improving communication with your health care team:. Start a health care journal.

Having a health care journal or notebook will allow you to keep all of your health information in one place. You may want to write down the names and contact information of the members of your health care team, as well as any questions for your doctor.

Keep a diary of your daily experiences with your cancer and its treatment. You can separate your journal or notebook into different sections to help keep it organized. Prepare a list of questions.

In advance of each medical appointment, write down your questions and concerns. Because your doctor may have limited time, you should ask your most important questions first, and be as specific and brief as possible. Bring someone with you to your appointments. The person who accompanies you can serve as a second set of ears.

He or she may also think of questions to ask your doctor or remember details about your symptoms or treatment that you may have forgotten. If you cannot write down the answers, ask the person who accompanies you to do that for you. If you have a mobile device, ask if you can use it to take notes. Writing notes will help you review the information later. Record your visit if your doctor allows it. Recording the conversation with your doctor gives you a chance to hear specific information again or share it with family members or friends.

Incorporate other health care professionals into your team. Your medical oncologist is an essential member of your health care team, but there are other health care professionals who can help you manage your diagnosis and treatment:. Because prostate cancer can return after treatment, many men with this diagnosis find themselves coping with it over the long term. In general, higher-than-normal PSA levels signal that something has changed in the prostate gland.

If a man has been treated for prostate cancer with surgical removal of the gland, most physicians believe that PSA levels should be very low—that is, less than 0. If the PSA level goes up during two consecutive readings after surgery, it may mean that prostate cancer has returned or spread from its original site to other organs. In men who have been treated with radiation, three consecutive rises in the PSA level may indicate a return or spread of the cancer.

Your doctor may also order other tests to further evaluate the situation. Can I continue to do exercise, like brisk walking, when I am being treated for metastatic prostate cancer? Exercise helps promote heart health and can relieve stress and fatigue. In general, activities like walking or swimming are preferable to high-impact activities, such as jogging. Men who are having a difficult time finding an exercise routine that works for them should seek the help of a physical therapist or rehabilitation specialist.

Is it appropriate to have radiation treatment for metastatic prostate cancer even though I was already treated with radiation before the cancer spread? If you have already received radiation to the pelvis near the prostate gland, more radiation to that area would generally not be recommended. But if you develop a problem such as pain in the bones of the arms, legs, or spine and those areas have not previously been exposed to radiation, you most likely could be treated with radiation to those areas.

There are no safety concerns for those around you associated with your being treated with external beam radiation radiation delivered from outside the body. While prostate cancer does appear to run in families, as of yet no specific genetic mutations associated with prostate cancer have been identified. This is an area of ongoing research. Men living with metastatic prostate cancer now have more options available than ever before.

Hormonal Treatments Hormonal therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy, remains the mainstay for treating metastatic prostate cancer. There are several approaches to hormonal therapy: Medications called GnRH agonists. These drugs lower the amount of testosterone made by the testicles.

They are either injected or placed as small implants under the skin. Combining GnRH agonists with antiandrogens. When the signals between the brain and the testes have been blocked by GnRH agonists, men with metastatic prostate cancer may experience a surge of testosterone.

If time permits, it is often a good idea to seek a second opinion. With time, as a man grows older, the prostate also tends to become larger in size. Maintain a healthy weight. Furthermore, the portal is designed to show all relevant information at the appropriate time, so that doctors and navigators can make the best possible decisions. Your doctor will choose the tests based on your symptoms and physical exam. T1 and T2 tumors confined to the local area are indicative of a better prognosis than T3 and T4 tumors which have metastasized.

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions. Related Articles & Videos

Increase efficiency — Automate data collection and identification of candidates for therapies. Improved patient care — Navigators have the best possible information as they make decisions about how the patient should progress along the care pathway.

Improved usability and presentation of EHR data — Gain the ability to mine physician OV notes to capture discrete data points, e. Gleason score, castrate resistance, active surveillance, etc. Conversion of scanned lab results — Convert scanned digital lab results to discrete values, e.

Improve consistency of care — Gain adherence reporting to identify patients drifting from treatment and scanning practices.

If the cancer is totally contained within the prostate gland, because the prostate cancer cells are slow to multiply. Thus, if the cancer has not spread, alternative treatments may be a viable solution. Once the cancer has started to spread, doctors sometimes want to do castration or some other procedure to help stop the cancer from continuing to spread from the general area of the prostate gland.

Widespread use of the PSA test has led to more men undergoing biopsies, prostate surgery, radiation therapy, and castration orchidectomy — this despite the fact that no randomized clinical trial has ever demonstrated that screening and treatment will increase the life expectancy of men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Avoiding and including certain foods are based on theories regarding adjusting the internal pH via food consumption to inhibit microbial reproduction and thus, cancer progression. There is no known way to prevent most prostate cancers as the main cause is a genetic predisposition. There are lifestyle decisions you can make to lower the risk of developing prostate cancer, including maintaining a healthy weight by being active and eating a healthy diet: vegetables; fruits; whole-grain bread, pasta, and cereals; fish; poultry; and beans.

Also, you should limit processed meat and red meat. It should be the intent of a person with cancer to focus on treatments that quickly increase the count of the cancer-killing white blood cells. A healthy immune system remains your body's best defense.

Not only is a weak immune system a major reason patients have cancer — and cancer itself can further weaken the immune system. Beta glucans help regulate the immune system, making it more efficient.

In addition, beta glucans stimulate white blood cells lymphocytes that bind to tumors or viruses and release chemicals to destroy it.

In fact, helping with cancer is just the beginning with Beta Glucan. There are studies showing the product can protect against infections, lower your cholesterol, lower blood sugar, reduce stress, increase your antibody production, heal wounds, help radiation burns, and support the immune system. Harvard Medical School suggests following general good-health guidelines is the single best step you can take toward keeping your immune system strong and healthy:.

Your diet plays a role in a healthy immune system. The top vitamins your immune system needs to perform include:. Supplemental Treatments. Clinical Treatments. Cancer Tutor works with many doctors and clinics to provide insight into cancer.

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This website… View Profile Follow. Prostate Cancer Prostate glands are walnut-sized glands that secrete fluids that support sperm cells and are part of the male reproductive system. Three types of precancerous conditions that have a high probability of developing into prostate cancer are: ASAP, or atypical small acinar proliferation PIN, or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia PIA, or proliferative inflammatory atrophy Adenocarcinoma is the most common form of prostate cancer.

Other risk factors include: Smoking Obesity Inflammation of the prostate Lack of exercise Diet high in fat, dairy, red processed meats Exposure to high levels of testosterone Symptoms of prostate cancer include: Urinary changes including change in frequency — more often change in urgency — need to go intensified feeling you cannot completely empty the bladder pain during urination Blood in urine or semen Painful ejaculation Symptoms that occur later in prostate cancer include: weight loss feeling tired weakness or numbness in the extremities loss of bladder or bowel control anemia pain in bones, especially back, hips, thighs or neck Who Gets Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men, worldwide, with 1 in 6 men, on average, diagnosed in their lifetime.

Prognosis if You Have Prostate Cancer A high percentage of cases of prostate cancer are found in the early stages. Expectant management essentially means to watch and see if the cancer gets worse.

Prostate tumours grow very slowly doubling every four years so for many men, especially older ones, this approach is quite viable. Expectant management often includes androgen-deprivation therapy castration or estrogen. External beam radiotherapy involves the shrinking or destruction of the tumour by radiation.

Radical prostatectomy involves surgical removal of the entire prostate gland. This procedure carries a substantial risk of subsequent impotence 60 per cent incidence rate and incontinence 39 per cent incidence rate. Immune System Health A healthy immune system remains your body's best defense.

Harvard Medical School suggests following general good-health guidelines is the single best step you can take toward keeping your immune system strong and healthy: Don't smoke. Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and low in saturated fat. Exercise regularly. Maintain a healthy weight. Control your blood pressure. If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation.

Get adequate sleep. Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently and cooking meats thoroughly. Get regular medical screening tests for people in your age group and risk category. Healthy Diet Your diet plays a role in a healthy immune system. The top vitamins your immune system needs to perform include: Vitamin C — helps to repair and regenerate tissues and aids in the absorption of iron Vitamin E — a powerful antioxidant that helps your body fight off infection Vitamin B6 — supports adrenal function and is necessary for key metabolic processes Vitamin A — aids immune function and helps provide a barrier against infections Vitamin D — modulates cell growth, promotes neuromuscular and immune function, and reduces inflammation Folate — key in development of red blood cells a lack of Folate can make the body susceptible to cancer Iron — helps your body carry oxygen to cells Selenium — slows the body's over-active responses to certain aggressive forms of cancer Zinc — slows the immune response and control inflammation in your body.

If you want to reverse cancer you must reverse your diet. Read time: 82 mins Liver flush Supplemental Treatments Designed to kill microbes and parasites in organs, liver flushes will help supercharge the immune system. Read time: 2 mins Rife protocols Treatments The frequency generator and plasma amplifier are designed to kill microbes through the cell membrane.

Read time: 33 mins What causes cancer? Articles Discussing cancer at the cellular level is totally different than talking about what causes cancer at the systemic level. Read time: 11 mins Laetrile Treatment Clinical Treatments Laetrile should not be the primary cancer treatment but frequently can be used as an effective supplement.

Treatments for metastatic prostate cancer - Canadian Cancer Society

Skip to Content. Use the menu to see other pages. This section tells you the treatments that are the standard of care for this type of cancer. When making treatment plan decisions, patients are encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment.

Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. In cancer care, different types of doctors—including medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologists—often work together to create an overall treatment plan that may combine different type of treatments to treat the cancer. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as palliative care experts, physician assistants, advanced nurse practitioners, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, physical therapists, and others.

Descriptions of the most common treatment options for prostate cancer are listed below. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.

Take time to learn about your treatment options and be sure to ask questions if something is unclear. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment, the likelihood that the treatment will work, what you can expect while receiving the treatment, and the possible urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormone-related side effects of treatment. Men should also discuss with their doctor how the various treatment options affect recurrence, survival, and quality of life.

In addition, the success of any treatment often depends on the skill and expertise of the physician or surgeon, so it is important to find doctors who have experience treating prostate cancer. These types of talks with your doctor are called shared decision making.

Shared decision making is when doctors and people with cancer work together to choose treatments that fit their goals of care. Shared decision making is particularly important for prostate cancer because there are many treatment options. Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are growing slowly, you usually do not have to rush to make treatment decisions.

During this time, it is important to talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of all your treatment options and when treatment should begin. This discussion should also address the current state of the cancer, such as:. Although your treatment recommendations will depend on these factors, there are some general steps for treating early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer.

Treatment options for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer are described later in this section. Early-stage prostate cancer stages I and II. Early-stage prostate cancer usually grows very slowly and may take years to cause any symptoms or other health problems, if it ever does at all. As a result, active surveillance may be recommended.

Radiation therapy external-beam or brachytherapy or surgery may also be suggested, as well as clinical trials. Your doctor will consider your age and general health before recommending a treatment option.

Radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and ADT are described in detail below. Locally advanced prostate cancer stage III. Men with locally advanced prostate cancer who choose not to have surgery should not have systemic therapy with either ADT or chemotherapy before surgery. Men with locally advanced prostate cancer who choose radiation therapy should receive ADT as the standard of care.

ADT given for 24 months is widely accepted as the least amount of time needed to control the disease, but 18 months may also be enough. Adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy is treatment that is given after radical prostatectomy. Having positive margins means that cancer cells were found in margins of the tissue removed during surgery that surrounded the prostate. Having positive margins does not necessarily mean that cancer was left behind during surgery. The significance of this finding needs to be discussed with your doctor.

The role of adjuvant radiation therapy for men who have microscopic cancer in their lymph nodes is still being studied. For older men who are not expected to live for a long time and whose cancer is not causing symptoms, or for those who have another, more serious illness, watchful waiting may be considered. If prostate cancer is in an early stage, is growing slowly, and treating the cancer would cause more problems than the disease itself, a doctor may recommend active surveillance or watchful waiting.

Active surveillance. In addition, many prostate cancers grow slowly and cause no symptoms or problems. For this reason, many men may consider delaying cancer treatment rather than starting treatment immediately. This is called active surveillance.

During active surveillance, the cancer is closely monitored for signs that it is worsening. If the cancer is found to be worsening, treatment will begin. Active surveillance is usually preferred for men with low-risk prostate cancer that can be treated with surgery or radiation therapy if it shows signs of getting worse.

ASCO endorses recommendations from CancerCare Ontario concerning active surveillance, which recommend active surveillance for most patients with a Gleason score of 6 or below, with cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate.

Sometimes, active surveillance may be an option for men with a Gleason score of 7. A patient should receive treatment if the results of the tests done during active surveillance show signs of the cancer becoming more aggressive or spreading, causes pain, or blocks the urinary tract.

Watchful waiting. Watchful waiting may be an option for much older men and those with other serious or life-threatening illnesses who are expected to live less than 5 years. If a patient develops symptoms from the prostate cancer, such as pain or blockage of the urinary tract, then treatment may be recommended to relieve those symptoms.

Men who start on active surveillance who later have a shorter life expectancy may switch to watchful waiting at some point to avoid repeated tests and biopsies. Doctors must be cautious in judging the disease.

In addition, many doctors recommend a repeat biopsy shortly after diagnosis to confirm that the cancer is in an early stage and growing slowly before considering active surveillance for an otherwise healthy man. New information is becoming available all the time, and it is important for men to discuss these issues with their doctor to make the best decisions about treatment.

Local treatments get rid of cancer from a specific, limited area of the body. Such treatments include surgery and radiation therapy. For men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, local treatments may get rid of the cancer completely.

Surgery involves the removal of the prostate and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery.

For prostate cancer, a urologist or urologic oncologist is the surgical oncologist involved in treatment. Radical open prostatectomy. A radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the entire prostate and the seminal vesicles.

Lymph nodes in the pelvic area may also be removed. This operation has the risk of affecting sexual function. Nerve-sparing surgery, when possible, increases the chance that a man can maintain his sexual function after surgery by avoiding surgical damage to the nerves that allow erections and orgasm to occur.

Orgasm can occur even if some nerves are cut because these are 2 separate processes. To help resume normal sexual function, men can receive drugs, penile implants, or injections. Sometimes, another surgery can fix urinary incontinence.

This type of surgery is possibly much less invasive than a radical prostatectomy and may shorten recovery time. The surgeon then directs the robotic instruments to remove the prostate gland and some surrounding healthy tissue. In general, robotic prostatectomy causes less bleeding and less pain, but the sexual and urinary side effects can be similar to those of a radical open prostatectomy. Talk with your doctor about whether your treatment center offers this procedure and how it compares with the results of the radical open prostatectomy.

Bilateral orchiectomy. Bilateral orchiectomy is the surgical removal of both testicles. Before surgery, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects from the specific surgery you will have.

Typically, younger or healthier men may benefit more from a prostatectomy. Younger men are also less likely to develop permanent erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence after a prostatectomy than older men. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time.

External-beam radiation therapy. External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation treatment. The radiation oncologist uses a machine located outside the body to focus a beam of x-rays on the area with the cancer. Some cancer centers use conformal radiation therapy CRT , in which computers help precisely map the location and shape of the cancer.

CRT reduces radiation damage to healthy tissues and organs around the tumor by directing the radiation therapy beam from different directions to focus the dose on the tumor.

One method of EBRT used to treat prostate cancer is called hypofractionated radiation therapy. This is when a person receives a higher daily dose of radiation therapy given over a shorter period instead of lower doses given over a longer period. According to recommendations from ASCO, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and American Urological Association, hypofractionated radiation therapy may be an option for the following people with early-stage prostate cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body:.

Men with intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer receiving EBRT to the prostate, but not including the pelvic lymph nodes. People who receive hypofractionated radiation therapy may have a slightly higher risk of some short-term side effects after treatment compared with those who receive regular EBRT. This can include gastrointestinal side effects. Based on current research, people who receive hypofractionated radiation therapy are not at a higher risk of side effects in the long term.

Talk with your health care team if you have questions about your risk for side effects. Learn more about these recommendations for hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer on a different ASCO website. Brachytherapy, or internal radiation therapy, is the insertion of radioactive sources directly into the prostate.

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions

Advanced prostate cancer solutions