Concept mapping for nurse-Concept Maps in Nursing Education: A Historical Literature Review and Research Directions

Barbara J. License Deed Legal Code. Although concept mapping was created in the early s, research in nursing education first appeared in This literature review analyzes the impact of concept mapping in nursing education. A total of articles, books, and book chapters were reviewed on the topic of concept mapping in nursing education.

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse

They were instructed to do the following:. Case studies combined with or without concept maps improve critical thinking in hospital-based nurses: A randomized-controlled trial. Creative Nursing1878— In addition, studies from other health professions, medical education, and patient education lend strength to the applicability of concept maps in Concept mapping for nurse and learning. Concept mapping as a critical thinking tool for nurse educators. Kostovich, Poradzisz, Wood, and O'Brien conducted a quantitative study of undergraduate nursing students to examine the relationship between learning styles and the students' aptitude for concept maps. Facione PA. Revista de Enfermagem Referencia4— Sign Up for Email Get the latest news and education delivered to your inbox Email address.

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Support Center Support Center. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Concept mapping for nurse study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. Table 2 reports mmapping scores related to each dimension of cognitive critical thinking skills. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. They were asked to carefully explain how they used that critical thinking in a given scenario or their own selected experience. To define critical thinking in the context of nursing, Schefer and Concet conducted a five-round Delphi study in which 55 nurse educators were involved. English German French. External link. Subscribe Now.

This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students.

  • Concept mapping and mind mapping have been used in science education since the s.
  • A visual learning tool, the concept map is an interactive and effective active learning strategy that can be used in a variety of educational settings, including the clinical site and classroom that encourages student decision making and priority setting.
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  • Whether a nursing student is trying to remember the various important pieces of information about a medical condition, or a practicing nurse is attempting to put a patient's complaints and data into context, a concept map can help to organize related pieces of information.

Barbara J. License Deed Legal Code. Although concept mapping was created in the early s, research in nursing education first appeared in This literature review analyzes the impact of concept mapping in nursing education. A total of articles, books, and book chapters were reviewed on the topic of concept mapping in nursing education. Results indicate that concept-mapping research progressed from the emergence state, to an expansion and adaptation stage, to an established stage.

Nursing education could benefit from further research on applying concept map scoring formulas, using concept maps with simulation, developing knowledge models, and creating concept map—centered learning environments. Over the past 25 years, the science of nursing education has advanced dramatically, in no small part due to the commitment of nurse educators to find and implement evidence-based practices in undergraduate and graduate nursing education.

Within the nursing profession, both the advancement of the science of nursing and the advancement of the science of nursing education have strengthened nursing science, clinical practice, and teaching—learning within nursing curricula.

One way to continue to strengthen the science of nursing education is to trace the development of educational innovations with an eye toward future research. Concept maps, an educational innovation from science education, have been used in nursing education for more than 25 years. A rich history of research supports their development and use. The purpose of this article is to trace the development and implementation of concept mapping in nursing education, summarizing the evidence of their use and setting directions for future research in this area.

Concept maps are based on the assimilation theory of meaningful learning created by David Ausubel in In Ausubel's view, learners think and learn with concepts, making concepts meaningful by the ways in which connections between concepts are developed in the learner's cognitive structures. Using concepts to learn in a meaningful manner happens in three ways: subsumption, progressive differentiation, and integrative reconciliation.

In the subsumption process, lower order concepts are nested under higher order concepts. Within progressive differentiation, concepts are divided into finer and finer distinctions, similar to an analysis process. Finally, by using integrative reconciliation, concepts are linked together in a synthesis-type process to form an integrated whole.

Based on their research, Novak and Gowin created concept maps as a method to operationalize Ausubel's learning theory.

To create a concept map, the learner uses the three processes outline above. First, the learner identifies concepts that are part of the topic in question.

Second, the learner places more general concepts at the top of the map and more specific concepts below the general concepts. The learner then ties the general and specific concepts together with linking words that portray a specific meaning. Finally, the learner looks for interconnections from one side of the map to the other.

The learner uses linking words to create these horizontal connections as a way to synthesize the developing knowledge. One aspect of creating concept maps that is often difficult for learners is the selection of linking words. The linking words between concepts are most often verbs and are important because the linking words that are selected change the meaning of the relationship between the two concepts.

For example, in creating a map on the concept of blood pressure , a linking word may be includes , to explain systolic and diastolic. However, if we change the linking words and indicate that blood pressure does not include systolic and diastolic, then an entirely different meaning is portrayed. Literature reviews can be conducted in a variety of ways. Grant and Booth identified a typology of 14 review types each with different methodologies.

What is evident from their analysis is that it is important to be clear on the purpose and methods used in a literature review. This allows the reader to evaluate the scope, rigor, and quality of the review conducted. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a historical analysis of the development of concept maps in the field of nursing education. Adams helped explain why historical reviews are important. He stated: A sense of history helps an investigator lock onto important themes.

Experiments enriched by history could contribute to the science rather than only brightening an inconsequential corner. Second, a sense of history tends to shunt an investigator away from the fads and fashions of his or her field. Fads and fashions are those inconsequential corners that are temporarily magnified out of proportion and that draw the energy of investigators who either have not seen the worth of persisting themes or who allow themselves to be turned from them.

Third, the canons of scholarship are based on history because they require that a the origins of ideas be known so that one's own ideas are in perspective and, b earlier experiments be known so that the knowledge increment in one's own empirical findings is clear. Keeping Adams' comments in mind, the current literature review analyzes the progression of research that fostered the development of concept maps in nursing education.

The themes of these works are extrapolated, the origins of the ideas are explained, and the progression of the knowledge created is described. This literature review is significant because as the history of the work to date is reviewed and summarized, it allows for the establishment and articulation of future research directions. The initial search yielded manuscripts.

The literature review reported in this article is a summary of both conceptual and empirically published literature on the uses of concept mapping in nursing education from to All articles found describing interventions, conceptualizations, and assessments of concept maps in nursing education during this period were included. In addition, to provide context and situate the work in nursing education to that in other fields, selected papers from the Concept Mapping Conference conducted from to were included, along with studies in medicine and other clinical practice disciplines in the health professions.

Finally, studies using concept maps in patient education were included. After the articles were identified and obtained, a matrix was created that identified the author, year, purpose, sample, methods, findings, and conclusions of each article. The final review included a total of articles.

Certain manuscripts were excluded from this review because they did not use Novak's and Gowin's definition of concept mapping and meaningful learning. In addition, manuscripts that had no connection to nursing education were excluded. These exclusions included studies in biology education, nursing nomenclature studies that mapped computer knowledge bases, and research articles that were based on a different definition of concept mapping as defined by Trochim and Linton In addition, concept analysis articles that used the conceptual framework of Walker and Avant were excluded because those articles did not use concept mapping in the methodology.

Kinchin reviewed the development of concept maps at the International Concept Mapping Conferences and indicated that the development of concept maps went through stages, with the first of these being emergence, where concept maps were introduced and tried in various areas. The second stage, consolidation, meant that the research demonstrated that across a wide variety of learners, different programs, and various pedagogical applications, concept maps were effective in facilitating learning.

The third stage, transformation, is currently occurring and challenging the status quo of education delivery in various fields. Findings from the current literature review indicate that the development of concept maps in nursing education has gone through these three stages.

The Figure is an adaptation of the time line proposed by Kinchin and depicts the development of concept maps in nursing education. Concept-mapping research in nursing education progressed through similar stages as defined by Kinchin , but with some distinct differences. Within nursing education, these stages began with emergence, when concept maps were introduced and examined in a variety of areas. Second, an expansion stage occurred, when the purposes of mapping and a variety of approaches were applied to different populations and sites within nursing education.

Within the expansion stage, an adaptation stage also occurred, when the original intent of the maps was modified and altered. This modification seems to have occurred without a solid grounding in the theoretical underpinnings of the concept maps. Various graphic organizer strategies were discussed and labeled as concept maps, but they did not contain the necessary conceptual elements needed. Finally, the research on concept mapping has moved into an established stage, but there remains a need for a continued transformative stage.

Historical development of concept mapping in nursing. Copyright by Ian Kinchin. Adapted with permission. Cordeiro, P. Aguiar, C. Copyright by Paulo Correia.

Even though concept mapping has been around since the early s, the first article on concept mapping in nursing education appeared in Smith reported on a study in which concept maps were used to support students in linking theoretical concepts from anatomy and physiology to the conduct of nursing skills within the setting of a skills laboratory. That same year, Wood discussed the use of concept mapping in teaching information about AIDS to nursing students.

During this same period, Patterson used concept mapping as part of the methodology and data analysis process in a study that sought to understand nurse educators' perspectives on clinical teaching.

Irvine conducted the first literature review on concept mapping in nursing education and addressed why and how concept maps could be used in nursing education. In , Daley reported on a qualitative study that sought to understand how nursing students link theoretical material to clinical practice. In that study, concept maps were used as a data reduction method for student interviews. Findings from the study indicate that nursing students did not link the elements of the nursing process together, clinical preparation was not linked to theoretical material, and the meaning students made of the information was different than meaning interpreted by the instructors Daley, It is interesting to note that during this period, nursing education researchers were looking at concept maps as a teaching and learning tool, specifically to assist students in linking theoretical material to clinical practice and also to understand the teaching and learning process in which students and faculty engaged.

Researchers in other disciplines chose a different route. During the year span from —, the research and scholarly writing on the use of concept maps in nursing education expanded. Researchers at that time were mainly assessing the use of concept maps in four areas.

First, concept maps as an alternative approach to traditional nursing care plans were assessed. Black, Green, Chapin, and Owens advocated for the use of concept maps instead of traditional care plans after they used concept maps with associate degree nursing students in clinical experiences.

Schuster used concept maps instead of care plans in a medical—surgical clinical course within an acute care facility. In that work, the author described less paperwork, students' enhanced critical thinking, and that concept maps assisted students in identifying relationships in patient data. Castellino evaluated the use of concept maps rather than care plans with RN students in Pakistan. In that article, students and faculty reported that the maps provided a holistic view of patients and helped the students learn to integrate information.

In , Ignatavicius wrote a book chapter that outlined moving from traditional care plans to concept maps. She called these maps clinical correlation maps , meaning they were concept maps in a clinical setting. In a quasi-experimental pretest—posttest design study with junior-level baccalaureate nursing students, Hinck et al. Overall, these studies and scholarly writings indicated that concept maps were a viable alternative to traditional care plans.

This body of work looked at concept maps as a strategy to promote meaningful learning, a method for collaborative learning, a strategy to promote higher level thinking, critical thinking and clinical decision making, and a methodology for fostering the linkages between theory and practice in a clinical setting. Overwhelmingly, the evidence indicated that concept maps could play a powerful and effective role in all of these areas.

This work demonstrates that the maps are a flexible tool that can be used in multiple ways to foster the development of thinking and learning in nursing education, as well as in clinical practice. Third, nurse scholars were considering the ways in which the use of concept mapping could be applied in a variety of educational areas and practice settings.

About the Author. Reflection: Contemplation upon a subject, especially one's assumptions, and thinking for the purposes of deeper understanding and self-evaluation. Draw lines between concepts to indicate the relationships. Toulmin SE. Using concept mapping to build clinical judgment skills. Concept Mapping

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse. Applications

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How to Make a Nursing Concept Map | Career Trend

This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind.

They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education. Critical thinking has been defined by many philosophers in different ways indicating the multifaceted nature of critical thinking as a process or outcome.

However, consideration of the context has been highlighted in John Dewey's definition of critical thinking. According to Dewey, critical thinking is active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends Dewey, , page 9.

In an attempt to describe critical thinking in nursing, many models have been developed. To define critical thinking in the context of nursing, Schefer and Rubenfeld conducted a five-round Delphi study in which 55 nurse educators were involved. Based on their study, a consensus was made on 17 dimensions of critical thinking under two categories of thinking cognitive skills and habits of mind[ 7 ] [Box 1].

Different strategies have been developed to teach critical thinking. Concept mapping is one example proposed for improvement of critical thinking. Using this strategy, the students draw the map of contents, and therefore use their cognitive skills of analysis, evaluation, and reasoning.

This strategy was developed by Novak during the years based on Ausoble's learning theory. The effectiveness of using concept mapping in student's achievement and interest[ 9 ] and self-efficacy[ 10 ] has been shown previously. Its efficacy in learning and evaluation of critical thinking in music, mathematics, and engineering has led nurses to use this learning strategy.

Furthermore, it enables the students to evaluate what they have learned and what they need to learn. The researchers designed a concept mapping rubric using Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model to help students construct clinical cases for the development of appropriate clinical judgment skills.

Qualitative evaluation of concept mapping activity and rubric revealed that the students positively approached this experience and evaluated it as a means for better clinical decision making and enhancement of clinical judgment. Despite the potential benefit of concept mapping in the clinical context, nursing students are encouraged to write nursing care plan for their patients while they see the nursing process as time-consuming paperwork not leading to critical thinking.

The more use of nursing process might be due to the fact that clinical instructors, nursing students, and even nursing staff are more familiar with traditional nursing process comparing to concept mapping. However, the use of nursing process care plan as the instrument for problem-solving or enhancing the art and creativity of nursing, and also as a method of providing individualized care has been challenged. Admitting the distinction between nursing process and concept mapping, some researchers compared the effects of these two strategies on critical thinking skills of nursing students.

It seems that concept mapping should not be seen as a separate strategy for care planning. To use concept mapping, students need to comprehensively understand nursing process.

Therefore, concept mapping based on nursing process might possibly add some benefit to traditional nursing process. Another point worth mentioning is the approach used in measurement of critical thinking. Critical thinking skills tests used in most studies are more appropriate for measurement of critical thinking in a general context, while measurement of discipline nursing -based critical thinking needs appropriate planning and careful implementation.

Complexities of clinical teaching and the difficulties in measurement of domain-specific critical thinking might be the reason for the insufficient evidence in this regard. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of concept mapping using nursing process on nursing-specific critical thinking, and its components of cognitive skills and habits of mind.

Analyzing: Separating or breaking a whole into parts to discover their nature, function, and relationships. Applying standards: Judging according to established personal, professional, or social rules or criteria. Discriminating: Recognizing differences and similarities among things or situations and distinguishing carefully as to category or rank.

Information seeking: Searching for evidence, facts, or knowledge by identifying relevant sources and gathering objectives, subjective, historical, and current data from those sources.

Logical reasoning: Drawing inferences or conclusions that are supported or justified by evidence. Transforming knowledge: Changing or converting the condition, nature, form, or function of concepts among contexts. Contextual perspective: Consideration of the whole situation, including relationships, background, and environment, relevant to some happening. Creativity: Intellectual inventiveness used to generate, discover, or restructure ideas; imaging alternatives.

Flexibility: Capacity to adapt, accommodate, modify, or change thoughts, ideas, and behavior. Inquisitiveness: Eagerness to know by seeking knowledge and understanding through observation and thoughtful questioning in order to explore possibilities and alternatives. Intellectual integrity: Seeking the truth through the sincere, honest processes, even if the results are contrary to one's assumptions and beliefs.

Open-mindedness: A viewpoint characterized by being receptive to divergent views and sensitive to one's biases. Reflection: Contemplation upon a subject, especially one's assumptions, and thinking for the purposes of deeper understanding and self-evaluation. Adapted from: Rubenfeld M, Scheffer B. Critical Thinking Tactics for Nurses. Canada: Jones and Bartlett publishers. They were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups.

The intervention of the study was conducted for the experimental group during their usual clinical learning experiences in medical surgical and pediatric wards. Both groups had a similar clinical rotation during the study. The intervention of the study started with a 1-day workshop. In this workshop, the students in the experimental group were introduced with the use of concept maps based on the nursing process. The students worked individually and then in groups to illustrate the relevant information from the presented case and provide the concept mapping.

They were instructed to do the following:. For each nursing diagnosis, list the subjective and objective data, identified from the case study, that are associated with the diagnosis.

List the current information about medical diagnosis, patient's medical history, risk factors and etiologies, diagnostic tests, treatments, and medications under the relevant nursing diagnoses. Draw lines between concepts to indicate the relationships. Link the relevant data using different types of lines e. On each line, use words such as related to, lead to, associated with to explain the relationship between the related concepts.

List the nursing interventions such as assessment, monitoring, procedures, therapeutic interventions therapeutic communication and or teaching for each diagnosis.

Add the expected outcomes associated with the nursing interventions for each nursing diagnosis. The students in the experimental group were required to apply concept mapping at least on two patients during their week clinical practice. The first author provided a weekly 2-h counseling session for the students to present their concept mapping and receive feedback.

For ethical considerations, they were told that their attendance in these activities dose not influence their clinical evaluation. Demographic data including age and grade point average GPA were reported by the students on the first page of the instrument used in the study. The instrument for measuring critical thinking was developed based on the instruction provided in another study[ 17 ] in which 17 dimensions of critical thinking under two categories of cognitive skills and habits of mind were considered.

Therefore, 14 scenarios were developed to measure analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting, transforming knowledge, contextual perspective, creativity, inquisitiveness, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and self-reflection. The first draft of scenarios was developed by a group of medical surgical and pediatric nursing instructors based on their lived experiences in relation to each critical thinking dimension.

The scenarios then were examined in a group of students to ensure that they are thought provoking. Ultimately a panel of experts consisting of experienced faculty members from different nursing specialties confirmed the appropriateness of scenarios for the measurement of the above-mentioned critical thinking dimensions.

For the dimensions of confidence, flexibility, and intellectual integrity, the students were offered a free response opportunity to select their own appropriate clinical experiences to illustrate the use of critical thinking. To develop the test format, each of the 17 critical thinking skills or habits of mind was defined in a square on top of the page specific to that critical thinking.

Scenarios developed for 14 critical thinking dimensions were inserted in any of its associated definitions. For the three other mental habits or critical thinking skills, we provided only the definitions. They were asked to carefully explain how they used that critical thinking in a given scenario or their own selected experience. For this purpose, they should write their own analysis based on the two tips given below.

Write in detail what you will do. Explain in detail so that someone reading your content would be able to realize that you have used that critical thinking. As the methodology of the study was post-test only design, the tests were given to the students at the end of the 10 th week of their clinical course and they were required to return them in the next 2 weeks. The students were instructed not to share their responses with other students. All the test packages received from the students were copied and evaluated anonymously by two different evaluators who were blind to the groups.

Quality or level of the response was scored based on a 3-point scale: 3 for clear and appropriate, 2 for unclear or inadequate description, and 1 for below the student's academic level.

Inter-rater agreement on scoring between the two evaluators was measured to maintain reliability. However, a consensus was made between the two evaluators on the scoring of the remained responses. The agreed upon scores in the three criteria for evaluation of critical thinking including identification, justification, and quality of responses were used in data analysis. No statistically significant demographic differences were found between the students of the two groups.

Chi-square analysis revealed that the groups were similar in terms of age and overall cumulative GPA. Dimensions to which most of the students did not respond were confidence, flexibility, and intellectual integrity.

These dimensions were free choice responses for which no vignettes were provided. Next, the scores from each of the 17 subscales for both groups were analyzed. Table 2 reports the scores related to each dimension of cognitive critical thinking skills. Mean score of both groups post-test in evaluation criteria for measurement of critical thinking. Mean scores for dimensions of cognitive critical thinking skills in two experimental and control groups.

This study examined the impact of concept mapping in the clinical context on discipline-based critical thinking skills of nursing students. The results also support the effectiveness of concept mapping in the improvement of both cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind.

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse

Concept mapping for nurse